Research Article

Invasion of Different Weeds on Gladiolus and their Control by Herbicides  

Abdul Qadeer1 , Zeshan Ali1 , Hafiz Ahmad2 , Muhammad Qasam1 , Sidra Toor3
1 Institute of Horticultural Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
2 Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
3 School of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Management Science and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Author    Correspondence author
Plant Gene and Trait, 2016, Vol. 7, No. 6   doi: 10.5376/pgt.2016.07.0006
Received: 15 Jun., 2016    Accepted: 27 Jul., 2016    Published: 28 Jul., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Qadeer A., Ali Z., Ahmad H.M., Qasam M., and Toor S., 2016, Invasion of different weeds on Gladiolus and their control by herbicides, Plant Gene and Trait, 7(6): 1-9 (doi: 10.5376/pgt.2016.07.0006)


Weeds are defined as plants growing where they are not desired. Presence of weeds highly effects the growth and development of desirable plants. Present study was carried out at Floriculture Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Five herbicide treatments were applied in three replications to the gladiolus variety “white prosperity”. By comparing results of pre and post emergence herbicide applications, it was observed that pre emergence treatments gave better results regarding weed control due to reduced competition between weed plants and crop plants. Pendimethalin applied at 12ml/litre was found to be the most effective treatment and controlled all weeds except Cyperus rotundus. Average number of plants and weed inhibition percentage of Cyperus rotundus in one foot square area were, 15.22 (39%), Convolvulus arvensis, 0.89 (77%), Coronopus didymus, 0.33 (91%), Chenopodium album, 0.22 (98%), Anagallis arvensis, 0.22 (98%), Conyza stricta, 0.89 (85%), Stellaria media, 0.22 (98%), Poa annua, 0.0 (100%), Melilotus indica, 0.22 (98%). Study revealed that Cyperus rotundus was efficiently controlled by S metolachlore than Pendimethalin where only average (2.22) numbers of plants were found in one square foot area and best weed inhibition percentage was upto (91%) for Cyperus rotundus.

Gladiolus; Cut flower; Weeds; Herbicides; Weedicides


Floriculture industry has become profitable industry due to divergence of farmers towards high value floral crops and utilization of flowers in social and industrial level (Ali et al., 2015; Zeshan et al., 2016). Gladiolus grandiflorus is the member of Iridaceae family and belongs to subfamily Ixioideae (Ranjan et al., 2010). Gladiolus flower is native to South Africa and has been commercially cultivated globally. Gladiolus genus is comprised of 255 species (Goldblatt and Manning, 1998) and is one of the most beautiful bulbous cut flowers in the floriculture industry.  It occupies fifth position in the international floriculture trade (Sharma and Sharma, 1988).Commercially it is used for cut flowers and occasionally used for landscape purposes.


Generally, weeds are defined as plants growing where they are not desired. Many weeds grow in areas where they are not well adapted, but may still thrive in the absence of competition (Ali et al., 2015). Usually they are favored by vigorous reproductive powers. Most of them are tolerant to adverse conditions of growth such as extreme heat or cold, drought or excessive moisture, saline or water-logged environments and marginal or disturbed soils. Weeds often possess hard seeds, underground root stocks or tubers, and show greater persistence (Athar and Shabbir, 2008). Weeds are the enemies of the crops in the sense that the needs of the both are identical in respect to light, soil, space, water, mineral salts and air for the manufacture of food substances and growth (Al-Yemeny, 1999; Zhao et al., 2006). Besides competing for light, nutrients, moisture and space, many weeds also exhibit allelopathic effects against susceptible crops (Javaid et al., 2007; Khan et al., 2005; Belz et al., 2007) and depress crop growth and secrete toxic substances from their decaying and living parts (Evidente et al., 2007; Singh et al., 2005). Weeds can also act as hosts of different crop pests (Oudejan, 1994). Weeds cause serious problems in the crops because of use of organic fertilizers like farm yard manure, urea and consistent irrigation patterns helping weeds to grow abundantly in the field crops (Rao, 1983). Worldwide different weed control strategies can be employed in the crops such as preventive, cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical. However, the chemical control using herbicides is one of the recent origin that is being practiced in modern agriculture. Herbicide use including pre emergence and post emergence applications on crops enables economic weed control and increases productivity (Taj et al., 1986). Weed control is complicated in Gladiolus because it is grown for two purposes both for cut flowers and corm production. Present research was planned to evaluate the effectiveness of different pre and post emergence herbicides on gladiolus to select effective herbicide for weed control in this crop.


1 Results and Discussions

Weeds are well known constraint to the production of all crops (Zhao et al., 2006; Rao et al., 2007; Sanusan et al., 2010) and some time even results to fail the crop (Phuong et al., 2005). Herbicides effectively suppress the weeds and provide the weeds free environment to the crop plants (Gitsopoulos and Froud-Williams, 2004). The criterion for weed control was taken as the percentage of weeds that are controlled by any particular treatment in comparison with untreated control. Applications of pre emergence (Metribuzine, Pendimethalin, S metolachlore), and post emergence (Paraquat, and Glyphosate, Metribuzine) treatmenrs depicted highly significant results on inhibiting the growth of weeds growth in gladiolus filed as shown in Table 1.


1.1 Effect of different herbicides on Deela (Cyperus rotundus)

Cyperus rotundus is native to Africa, southern to central Europe, and southern Asia. It is commonly called (purple nut sedge, coco-grass, and red nut sedge. Various researchers’ i.e Oudhia and Tripathi (2000), Shah and Khan (2006) and Riaz et al. (2007) have reported its occurrence in vegetable and flowering crops. Results regarding effect of pre-emergence herbicide application on weed control of Cyprus rotundus are given in Table 2 as treatment means. Among the pre-emergence herbicide treatments maximum weed count and minimum weed inhibition was observed T1 (Metribuzine) 19.44 (23%) followed by T3 (Pendimethalin low) 17.77 (29%) and T4 (Pendimethalin high) 15.22 (39%) and lowest weed count and maximum weed inhibition was recorded in T2 (S-metolachlore) 2.22 (91%) while comparing to T0 (control) 25.11. Among post-emergence herbicide treatments maximum weed count and minimum weed inhibition percentage was observed inT7 (Metribuzine low) 23.44 (7%) followed by T5 (Paraquat) 6.0 (76%) and lowest weed count and maximum weed inhibition was observed in T6 (Glyphosate) 3.55 (85%) while comparing to T0 (control) 25.11 as shown in Figure 1. Results indicate that S metolachlore showed best control over Cyperus rotundus. Minimum plants (2.22 per ft2) were observed and showed maximum weed control percentage (91%) in the S-metolachlore treated plots. Barray et al. (2005) concluded that S-metolachlore applied as pre emergence herbicide significantly reduced the tuber densities of Cyperus rotundus up to 60%~65%.


Iqbal and Cheema (2008) reported that purple nutsedge (Cyprus rotundus) was reduced by 75%~88% than untreated control indicating that S. metolachlor doses as pre-emergent herbicide. Cheema et al. (2003) reported that 58%~71% inhibition of Cyperus rotundus was acquired with reduced rates of S-metolachlor as compared to control. Maqbool et al. (2001) reported that Pendimethalin and S-metolachlore both applied as pre-emergent herbicide and Pendimethalin was not effective against Cyperus rotundusand did not controlled it while S-metolachlore effectively controlled this weed.



Table 1 Analysis of variance for the effect of different herbicides application on weed control in Gladiolus


1.2 Effect of different herbicides on field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis)

Convolvulus arvesnsis is commonly called as “leli” or field bindweed. It belongs to the morning glory family “Convolvulaceae” and native to Asia and Europe. Different field survey confirms its occurrence in floricultural crops. Khan et al. (2001), Riaz et al. (2007) and Tahira et al. (2010) have reported its prevalence in galadiolus field. Results of Table 2 indicates that T4 (Pendimethalin at 12 mL/litre) was found to be the most effective treatment in controlling Convolvulus arvensis because lowest weed count (0.88) weed plants per ft2and maximum weed control percentage (77%) was observed. Among the pre-emergence treatments highest field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) weed count and lowest weed control percentage was observed in, T2 (S- metolachlore) 2.0 (48%), T3 (Pendimethalin low) 1.33 (65%),T1 (Metribuzine high) 1.0 (74%) and lowest weed count and maximum weed control percentage was observed in T4 (Pendimethalin high) 0.88 (77%) when compared to T0 (Control) 3.88. While in post emergence treatments highest weed count and lowest weed control percentage was observed in T7 (Metribuzine low) 3.0 (22%), followed by T5 (Paraquat) 1.33 (65%), and lowest weed count and maximum weed control percentage was observed in T6 (Glyphosate) 1.0 (74%) when compared to T0 (Control) 3.88. Khaliq et al. (1999) and Rahman et al. (2011) also reported that Pendimethalin was found to be an effective treatment while controlling Convolvulus arvensis. Rahman et al. (2012) showed the best weed control including Convolvulus arvensis was obtained with Pendimethalin and improved the yield of crops. Uygur et al. (2010) worked on weeds and reported that Convolvulus arvensis was bitterly controlled by Pendimethalin and did not cause toxicity to the plants. Wiese and Lavake (1985) stated that Glyphosate was used to suppress field bindweed during fallowor dormant periods in numerous crops but seldom eliminate re growth from adventitious buds on rhizomes. Kewat and Jitendra (2001) during their experiment on soybean reported that Lower doses of metribuzine and pendimethaline significantly lowered weed density of Convolvulus arvensis whereas higher doses caused phytotoxicity on the plant


1.3 Effect of different herbicides on swine cress (Coronopus didymus)

Data regarding swine cress weed inhibition was taken by visual observations by counting the number of weed plants in treated plots. Results of herbicide applications of Metribuzine, Pendimethalin, S metolachlore, Paraquat, and Glyphosate on suppression of swine cress weed are given as treatment means in Table 2. In pre emergence herbicides treatments maximum number of weed count and lowest weed control percentage was observed in T3 (Pendimethalin. Low) 1.11(72%) followed by T2 (S metolachlore) 0.56 (86%), T1 (Metribuzine high) 0.43 (86%) and lowest weed count and highest weed control percentage was observed in T4 (Pendimethalin. High) 0.33 (91%) when compared to control T0 (Control) 4.0. Sharma (2000) in his experiment on radish reported that Coronopus didymus is effectively controlled by pendimethalin. Pandey et al. (2001) observed that Metribuzine and pendimethaline gave excellent control over Coronopus didymus. In post emergence herbicides maximum weed count was observed in T6(Glyphosate) 1.33 (66%) followed by T5 (Paraquat) 1.11 (72%) and lowest weed count and highest weed control percentage was observed in T7 (Metribuzine low) 0.33 (91%) when compared to T0 (Control) 4.0. 



Table 2 Means of Pre-emergence (T0-T4) and Post-emergence (T5-T7) herbicide treatments on various weeds in Gladiolus filed



Figure 1 Effect of herbicide treatments on 9 species (Plant density/m2)


Results indicate that Pendimethalin 12 mL/litre as pre emergence herbicide and Metribuzine 1g/litre as post emergence herbicide both showed (0.33 average plants per ft2) best results for controlling Coronopus didymusand weed control percentage was upto (91%). Khokhar et al. (2006) conducted a field trial to study weed management in benefits in transplanted onion and reported that Pendimethaline was found effective in controlling Coronopus didymus lowering the growth of weed and increased bulb yield. Gurcharan et al. (1994) suggested that all weeds controlling treatments including pendimethalin resulted in 79.6%~85.1% control of weed. Khan et al. (2012) reported that Coronopus didymus was squally controlled by the application of Pendimethalin and S metolachlore herbicides.


1.4 Effect of different herbicides on Bathu (Chenopodium album)

Chenopodium album is commonly called “bathu or pigweed” and common weed present in the region and in the gladiolus fields.It belongs to genus Chenopodium and widely distributed in the winter crops. This weed significantly reduced the yield upto 61 and 76 percent (Schroeder, 1992). Results in Figure 1D represent the applications of pre-emergence and post emergence herbicides on inhibition of Chenopodium album. Among the pre emergence treatments highest weed count and lowest weed control percentage was observed in T1 (Metribuzine high) 0.55 (88%), T2 (S metolachlore) 0.33 (96%), T3(Pendimethalin low) 0.33 (96%), T4 (Pendimethalin high) 0.22 (97%) while comparing to T0 (control) 10.55. In post emergence herbicides applications maximum weed count was observed in T5 (Paraquat) 2.44 (76%) followed by T6 (Glyphosate) 1.22 (88%) and lowest weed count was observed in T7 (Metribuzine low) 0.33 (96%) while comparing to T0 (control) 10.55. Pendimethalin high dose 12ml/litre showed significant superiority in controlling Bathu (Chenopodium album) than other treatments. Minimum (0.22) plants per ft2 and highest weed control percentage (97%) were observed in T4 treated plots. In other researches, it was revealed that Chenopodium album can be reduced significantly by the applications of metribuzin (Soltani et al., 2005), by application of pendimethaline and S-metolachlore, (Balyan et al., 1997; Rehman et al., 2011; Rahman et al., 2012; Soltani et al., 2012). Richardson and Zandstra et al. (2006) observed increased control of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) from residual of Pendimthalin. The detail of results for the effect of different weeds on Chenopodium album is given in Figure 1D.


1.5 Effect of different herbicides on Red chick weed (Anagallis arvensis)

Anagallis arvensis is commonly called as red chick weed having low growing habit and broad leaf weed. It is known to have occurrence in the region as an important weed during winter crops. Schroeder (1992) reported that Amaranthus blitoides reduced the pepper yield upto 33 percent in untreated plots. Average minimum (0.22) plants per ft2and maximum weed control percentage (98%) were observed in T4 applied plots. In pre emergence herbicide treatment maximum weed count was observed in T2 (S metolachlore) 1.22 (90%) followed by T3 (Pendimethalin. Low) 1.0 (92%), T1 (Metribuzine high) 0.55 (95%) and lowest weed count T4 (Pendimethalin high) 0.22 (98%) when compared toT0 (Control) 12.77. In post emergence maximum weed count was observed in T5 (Praquat) 4.11 (67%) followed by T6 (Glyphosate) 3.33 (73%) and lowest weed count in T7 (Metribuzine low) 0.22 (98%) when compared to control T0 (Control) 12.77. Similar results were found by Tiwari and Kurchani (1993), Zubair et al. (2009) stated that Anagallis arvensiswas is effectively controlled by the applications of pendimethalin as pre emergence herbicide.


1.6 Effect of different herbicides on Horse weed (Conyza stricta)

Average minimum (0.89) plants per ft2 and maximum weed control percentage (85%) were observed in T4. Similar results were found by Sajid et al. (2012) reported that pendimethlin and S metolachlore both significantly controlled reduced the density of Conyza stricta. Singh and Singh (1998) reported the efficiency of Pendimethalin in controlling horse weed. Results were found contradictory to Hassan et al. (2003) who reported that the herbicides applied were effectively post emergently, the C. stricta germinating during early March was not influenced by the herbicide. In Pre emergence treatments applications highest weed count was observed in, followed by T2 (S metolachlor) 2.0 (68%), T3 (Pendimethalin 10ml/litre) 1.66 (73%), T1 (Metribuzine high 2g/litre) 1.0(84%), T4 (Pendimethalin High) 0.89 (85%) when compared with T0 (control) 6.33. In post emergence treatments weed count including T5 (Paraquat) 1.0 (84%), T7 (Metribuzine low) 1.0 (84%), T6 (Glyphosate) 0.89 (85%) when compared to untreated plot T0 (control) 6.33.


1.7 Effect of different herbicides on Chick weed (Stellaria media)

Stellaria media is an important weed reported to have occurrence in the gladiolus fields. It is commonly called as chickweed and known to have occurrence in the cool season. It belongs to family Caryophyllaceae. Study revealed that Pendimethalin applied at 12ml/litre as pre emergence herbicide significantly found to be the best for the inhibition of Stellaria media. In pre emergence herbicides treatments highest weed count was observed in T1 (Metribuzine high) 0.44 (96%), T3 (Pendimethalin low) 0.33 (97%),T2 (S metolachlore) 0.33 (97%) and lowest weed count T4 (Pendimethaline.high) 0.22 (98%) when compared to T0 (Control) 12.0. In post emergence herbicide applications highest weed count was observed in T5 (Paraquat) 2.44 (79%), T6 (Glyphosate) 2.0 (82%), T7 (Metribuzine low) 0.77 (93%) when compared to T0 (Control) 12. Average minimum (0.22) plants per ft2 and maximum weed control percentage (98%) were observed in T4 Figure 1G. Bonasia et al. (2012) reported that Pendimethaline did not show the clear results in terms of phytotoxicity and weed control. Wszelakia et al. (2007) reported that best control over Stellaria media was attained with herbicides which were more reliable to environmental hazards as compared to flaming. Steven et al. (2001) reported that Stellaria media was controlled upto 80% with the applications of S metolachlore.


1.8 Effect of different herbicides on Grasses (Poa annuaand Phalaris minoretc.)

Poa annua is commonly called as annual blue grass and also known as turfgrass in temperate climates with low growing habit. It is present abundantly in the gladiolus fields as a dominant weed. It belongs to family Poaceae. In pre emergence herbicide treatments T1 maximum number of grasses were found in (Metribuzine high) 0.33 (96%), followed by T2 (S metolachlore) 0.22 (97%), T3 (Pendimethalin low) 0.0 (100%), T4 (Pendimethalin High) 0.0 (100%) when compared to T0 (Control) 10.22. In post emergence herbicide applied treatments highest weed count was observed in T5 (Paraquat) 2.44 (76%), followed by T6 (Glyphosate) 2.11 (79%) and T7 (Metribuzine low) 0.22(97%) when compared to T0 (Control) 10.222. Average minimum (0.0) plants per ft2 and maximum weed control percentage (100%) were observed in T4. Similar results were found by Yaduraju et al. (2000) reported pre emergence applications of Pendimethalin gave best results in controlling Phalaris minor L. Mehmood et al. (2007) found that Pendimethalin gave best results on controlling weeds like Poa annua and significantly increased yield.


1.9 Effect of different herbicides on Senji (Melilotus indica)

Melilotus indica belongs to family Fabeaceae. It is naturalized throughout the world but its origin northern Africa, Asia and Europe and commonly called as sweet clover. Regarding the growth suppression of Melilotus indica by herbicide applications of Metribuzine, Pendimethalin, S metolachlore, Paraquat and Glyphosate.Regarding pre mergence herbicides highest weed count of  senji was observed in TI(Metribuzine high) 0.66 (96%), T3 (Pendimethalin low) 0.55 (97%), T2 (S metolachlore) 0.44 (97%), T4 (Pendimethalin High) 0.22 (98%) when they were compared with controlT0 (control) 4.44. In post emergence herbicide treatments highest weed count was observed in T5 (Paraquat) 2.33 (79%) followed by T6 (Glyphosate) 1.11 (82%), T7 (Metribuzine low) 0.66 (93%), T1 (Control) 4.44. Average minimum (0.22) plants per ft2 and maximum weed control percentage (98%) were observed in T4Marwat et al. (2008) reported that Pendimethalin proved to be the very effective in controllingMelilotus indica. Shehzad et al. (2012) reported that all herbicide including pendimethalin applications effectively controlled Melilotus indica. Zubair et al. (2009) stated that pre emergence applications of stomp effectively controlled Melilotus indica. Tiwari and Kurchan (1993), Rahman et al. (2011) also reported similar results.


2 Conclusion

From this experiment it was concluded that Pre emergence herbicides treatments were found superior to post emergence herbicides treatments. Pendimethalin was found to be the most effective treatment and approximately controlled all weeds in Gladiolus. This research will help the Gladiolus growers to select the appropriate herbicide for the control of targeted weed. Adverse effects of these herbicides on plant growth, yield and injury have not studied in this research that is needed to make the results more concise.


3 Materials and Methods

Present study was conducted at Floriculture Research Area, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The study was carried out to check the efficiency of different herbicides for pre emergence and post emergence weed control on gladiolus variety “White prosperity”. Soil was thoroughly tilled, leveled and blocks were laid out according to Randomized Complete Block Design. A basal dose of NPK was applied @ 200:180:200 kg/ha before laying out the blocks. Each plot size comprises of 19.2 ft from width containing eight rows and each row contains five corms. Corms of gladiolus were planted on raised beds. Corms were planted randomly in three replications. There were eight treatments applied. Five corms were planted in each treatment and each treatment was replicated thrice with total of 120 corms used in the study. Before start of experiment, soil samples from various blocks of experimental field were collected randomly to assess physio-chemical properties (PH, EC, texture, organic matter contents and N, P, K and Zn contents) of the soil. The results regarding all parameters are given below. Soil analysis was performed to examine physical and chemical properties of soil which showed that soil has normal electrical conductivity (EC) 2.05 and high pH (8.05). The amount of organic matter was also in critical range (0.515). Potassium contents (191 mg/kg) were in normal range while phosphorus contents (8.3 mg/kg) were in critical ranges. The concentrations of zinc (1.3 mg/kg) and nitrogen (10.10 %) was also present in critical ranges. Pre emergence treatments were S metolachlor (8 mL/litre), Metribuzine (2 gm/litre), Pendimethalin (10 mL/litre), Pendimethalin (12 mL/litre) and were applied after 4 days after sowing when moisture conditions were available there.Post emergence treatments were Paraquat (10 mL/litre), Glyphosate (15 mL/litre) and Metribuzine (1 gm/litre) and applied after one month of sowing. All other cultural practices like fertilization, plant protection measures, staking, earthening up were same for all treatments during entire period of study. Plants were allowed to grow and data regarding growth, flowering was collected using standard procedures.


3.1 Date of Pre emergence weeds

Weeds were counted with the help of foot squares as number of weeds in one square foot which is equal to (929.03 cm) area. Data regarding pre emergence weeds was taken after one month of herbicides application because after one month they can be easily identified. From each replication three foot squares data was taken and weeds were counted randomly.


3.2 Data of Post emergence weeds

Weeds were counted with the help of foot squares as number of weeds in one square foot which is equal to (929.03cm) area. Data regarding post emergence weeds was taken after twenty days of post emergence herbicide application. From each replication three foot squares data was taken and weeds were counted randomly.


3.3 Statistical Analysis

All data was analyzed statistically by using analysis of variance technique and results were subjected to Duncan’s Multiple Range test, treatment means were compared according to two factorial RCBD at 5% level of significance as reported by Steel et al. (1997).



Ali Z., Qadeer A., Ahmad H.M., Aziz O., Qasam M., and Ali Q., 2015, Assessment of effect of different herbicides on morphological traits of Gladiolus grandiflorus, Life Sci. J., 12(4s): 87-93


Al-Yemeny M.N., 1999, A checklist of weeds in Al-Kharj area of Saudi Arabia, Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., 2: 7-13


Athar M., and Shabbir S.M., 2008, Nodulating leguminous weeds of some major crops of Pakistan, Phytologia, 09: 247-251


Balyan R.S., Malik R.K., and Daheya S.S., 1997, Weed management studies in Lentil (Lens cularinus Linn.), Ind. J. Weed Sci., 29(1-2): 20-22


Barray J.B., Daniel O., Stephenson, and Unruh J.B., 2005, Control of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) with herbicides and mowing, Weed Technol., 19: 809-814


Belz R.G., Reinhardt C.F., Foxcroft L.C., and Hurle K., 2007, Residue allelopathy in Parthenium hysterophorus L.-Does parthenin play a leading role? Crop Protect, 26(3): 237-245


Bonasia A., Conversa G., Lazzizera C., Rotonda P. L., and Elia A., 2012, Weed control in lampascione e Muscari comosum (L.), Mill. Crop Prot., 36: 65-72


Cheema Z.A., Khaliq A., and Hussain R., 2003, Reducing herbicide rate in combination with Comparison between conventional and organic weed management: growth and yield of leek (Allium porrum L.), 39(2): 81-88


Evidente A., Aparicio M. F., Andolfi A., Rubiales D., and Motta A., 2007, Trigoxazonane, a onosubstituted trioxazonane from Trigonella foenum-graecum root exudate, inhibits Orobanche crenata seed germination, Phytochemistry, 68: 2487-2492 PMid:17604061


Gitsopoulos T.K., and Froud-Williams R.J., 2004, Effects of oxadiargyl on direct-seeded rice and Echinochloa crus-galli under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Weed Res., 44: 329-334


Goldblatt P., and Manning J., 1998, Gladiolus in Southern Africa, Fernwood press, Vle a-berg, South Africa


Gurcharan S.H., Kundra C.L., Brar S., Gupta R.P., and Singh G., 1994, Effect of herbicides on soil microorganism dynamics, Rhibobium legume symbiosis and grain yield of pea (Pisum sativum L.), Indian Annals Agric. Res., 15(1): 22-26


Hassan G., Khan N., and Khan H., 2003, Effect of zero tillage and herbicides on the weed density and yield of chickpeaunder rice-based conditions of d.i. Khan., Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 9(3&4): 193-200


Iqbal J., and Cheema Z.A., 2008, Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus l.) Management In cotton with combined application of sorgaab and s-metolachlor, Pak. J. Bot., 40(6): 2383-2391


Javaid A., Bajwa R., Rabbani N., and Anjum T., 2007, Comparative tolerance of six rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes to allelopathy of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), Allelopathy J., 20(1): 157-166


Kewat M.L., and Jitendra P., 2001, Effect of pre-emergence herbicides on weed control in soybean (Glycine max), Indian. J. Agron., 46: 321-327


Khaliq A., Cheema Z.A., Mukhtar M.A., and Basra S.M.A., 1999, Evaluation of sorghum (sorghum bicolor) water extract wesed control in soyabean, Int. J. Agric., 1(2): 023-026


Khan M.A., Alam M., Ahmed K., Akhter M.Z., and Khan E.A., 2001, Effect of different materials to control conyza stricta weed in sugarcane crop, Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 16(1): 57-61


Khan T. D., Chung I.M., Xuan T.D., and Tawata S., 2005, The exploitation of crop allelopathy in sustainable agriculture production, J. Agron. Crop Sci., 191: 172-184


Khan N.W., Khan N., and Khan I.A., 2012, Integration of nitrogen fertilizer and herbicide for efficient weed management in maize crop, Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 28(3): 457-463


Khokhar K.M., Mehmood T., Shakeel M., and Chaudhry M.F., 2006, Evaluation of integrated weed management practices for onion in Pakistan, Crop Prot., 25(9): 968-972


Maqbool M.M., Tanveer A., Ali A., and Ahmed R., 2001, Effect of sowing method and herbicides and weeds and yield of cotton (Gossipium hirsutum), Pak. J. Bot., 33(4): 383-387


Marwat K.B., Saeed M., Hussain Z., Gul B., and Rashid H.U., 2008, Study of various herbicides for weed control in wheat under irrigated conditions, Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 14(1-2): 1-8


Mehmood T., Khokhar K.M., and Shakeel M., 2007, Integrated weed management practices in garlic crop in Pakistan, Crop Prot., 26(7): 1031-1035


Oudejan J.H., 1994, Agro pesticides, properties and functions in integerated crop protection, United Nations, Economic and Social commission for Asian and Pacific United nations Bangkok, pp.264-290


Oudhia P., and Tripathi R.S., 2000, Medicinal weed flora of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) fields in Chhattisgarh (India) region, J. Crop Res., 20(3): 482-488


Pandey J., Sing R., and Verma A.K., 2001, Influence of herbicides on weed management in true potato, Acta Agron. Hung., 49(2): 183–187


Phuong L.T., Denich M., Vlek P.L.G., and Balasubramanian V., 2005, Suppressing Weeds in Direct-seeded Lowland Rice: Effects of methods and rates of seeding, J. Agron. Crop Sci., 191: 185-194


Rahman H., Ullah K., Sadiq M., Zubair M., Javaria S., Khan M.A., and Khattak M.A., 2011, Relative efficacy of different weed control Methods in onion (allium cepa l.), Crop. J. Weed Sci. Res., 17(4): 343-350


Rahman H.U., Khattak A.M., Sadiq M., Ullah K., Javaria S., and Ullah I., 2012, Influence of different weed management practices on yield of garlic crop, Sarhad J. Agric., 28(2): 131-139


Ranjan P., Bhat K.V., Misra R.L., Singh S.K., and Ranjan J.K., 2010, Relationships of gladiolus cultivars inferred from flu o-rescence based on AFLP markers, Sci. Hort., 123(4): 562-567


Rao V. S., 1983, Principles of Weed Sciences, Oxford and IBH publishing Co. New Delhi, pp.23-42


Rao A.N., Johnson D.E., Sivaprasad B., Ladha J.K., and Mortimer A.M., 2007, Weed management in direct-seeded rice, Adv. Agron., 93: 153-255


Riaz T., Khan S.N., Javaid A., and Farhan A., 2007, Weed flora of Gladiolus in Lahore, Pakistan, Pak. J. Weed. Sci. Res., (1-2): 113-120


Richardson R.J., and Zandstra B.H., 2006, Evaluation of flumioxazin and other herbicides for weed control in gladiolus, Weed Technology, 20(2): 394-398


Sajid M., Rab A., Amin N.U., Wahid F., Jan I., Ahmad I., Khan I.A., and Khan M.A., 2012, Effect of herbicides and row spacing on the growth and yield of pea, Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 18(1): 1-13


Schroeder J., 1992, Oxyflurfen for directed postemergence weed control in chile peppers (Capsicum annuum), Weed Technology, 6(4):1010-1014


Shah G.M., and Khan M.A., 2006, Checklist of noxious weeds of district Mansehra, Pakistan, Pak. J. Weed. Sci., 12(3): 213-219


Sharma S.C., and Sharma A.N., 1988, Commercial cultivation of gladiolus in: J. Parkash and R. Bhandary (Eds), Floriculture technology trades and trends, Oxford publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New delhi, India, pp.199-202


Singh B.D., and Singh B.P., 1998, Effect of weed management practices and phosphorus levels on weed infestation, nodulation and yield of chickpea + mustard intercropping system, Ind. J. Weed Sci., 30(3-4):124-128


Singh H.P., Batish D.R., Pandher J.K., and Kohli R.K., 2005, Phytotoxic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus residues on three Brassica species, Weed Biol. Manage, 5(3): 105-109.


Sharma J.J., 2000, Weed management in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh. Ind. J. Weed Science 32 (2): 108-109.


Soltani N., Nurse R.E., and Sikkema P.H., 2012, Weed control in dry bean with Pendimethalin plus weeding and herbicide on weeds suppression and yield of wheat, Sarhad J. Agric., 23(2): 12-25


Soltani N., Deen B., Bowley S., and Sikkema P.H., 2005, Effects of pre-emergence applications of flufenacet plus metribuzin on weeds and soybean (Glycine max), Crop Prot., 24(1): 507-511


Steel R.G.D., Torrie J.H., and Deekey D.A., 1997, Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach (3rd ed), McGraw Hill Book Co., New York


Steven A.F., Smith R.F., and Milton E., 2001, Weed management in fresh market Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) with S-metolachlor, Weed Technology, 15(3): 511-516[0511:WMIFMS]2.0.CO;2


Sanusan S., Polthanee A., Audebert A., Seripong S., and Mouret J., 2010, Suppressing weeds in direct-seeded lowland rainfed rice: Effect of cutting dates and timing of fertilizer application, Crop Protec., 29: 927-935


Tahira J.J., Khan S.N., Suliman R., and Anwar W., 2010, Weed flora of curcuma longa fields of district kasur, Pakistan, Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 16(2): 241-246


Taj F.H., Khattak A., and Jan T., 1986, Chemical weed control in wheat, Sarhad J. Agric., (2): 15 21


Tiwari J.P., and Kurchani S.P., 1993, Chemical control of weeds in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), Ind. J. of Agric. Sci., 63(5): 272-275


Wiese A.F., and Lavake D.E., 1985, Control of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) with postemergence herbicides, Weed Sci., 34: 77-80


Wszelakia A.L., Doohana J.D., and Alexandrou A., 2007, Weed control and crop quality in cabbage (Brassica oleracea (capitata group)) and tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) using a propane flamer, Crop Prot., (26): 134-144


Yaduraju N.T., Zaidi P.H., Das T.K., Ahuja K.N., 2000, Response of isoproturan-Resistant Phalaris minor to some Dinitroaniline Herbicides, 13(1): 133-136


Zeshan A., Muhammad S., Abdul Q., Hafiz M.A., Muhammad Q., and Omar A., 2016, Performance evaluation of gladiolus varieties under diverse climatic conditions, Plant Gene and Trait, 7(4): 1-9


Zhao D.L., Atlin G.N., Bastiaans L., and Spiertz J.H.J., 2006, Developing selection protocols for weed competitiveness in aerobic rice, Field Crops Res., 97(2-3): 272-285


Zubair M., Rahman H., Jilani M.S., Kiran M., Waseem M.K., Khattak A.M., Rahim A., Khan A.A, Qayyum A., and Wahab A., 2009, Comparison of different weed management practices in onion (Allium cepa l.) under agro climatic conditions of Dera ismail khan, Pakistan. Pak. J. Weed Sci., 15(1): 45-51

Plant Gene and Trait
• Volume 7
View Options
. PDF(367KB)
Associated material
. Readers' comments
Other articles by authors
. Abdul Qadeer
. Zeshan Ali
. Hafiz Ahmad
. Muhammad Qasam
. Sidra Toor
Related articles
. Gladiolus
. Cut flower
. Weeds
. Herbicides
. Weedicides
. Email to a friend
. Post a comment