Light-induced LLPS of the CRY2/SPA1/FIO1 Complex Regulating mRNA Methylation and Chlorophyll Homeostasis in Arabidopsis
Published:25 Dec.2023    Source:Nature Plants
Light regulates chlorophyll homeostasis and photosynthesis via various molecular mechanisms in plants. The light regulation of transcription and protein stability of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins have been extensively studied, but how light regulation of mRNA metabolism affects abundance of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins and chlorophyll homeostasis remains poorly understood.
Here we show that the blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and the METTL16-type m6A writer FIONA1 (FIO1) regulate chlorophyll homeostasis in response to blue light. In contrast to the CRY2-mediated photo-condensation of the mRNA adenosine methylase (MTA), photoexcited CRY2 co-condenses FIO1 only in the presence of the CRY2-signalling protein SUPPRESSOR of PHYTOCHROME A (SPA1). CRY2 and SPA1 synergistically or additively activate the RNA methyltransferase activity of FIO1 in vitro, whereas CRY2 and FIO1, but not MTA, are required for the light-induced methylation and translation of the mRNAs encoding multiple chlorophyll homeostasis regulators in vivo.

Our study demonstrates that the light-induced liquid–liquid phase separation of the photoreceptor/writer complexes is commonly involved in the regulation of photoresponsive changes of mRNA methylation, whereas the different photo-condensation mechanisms of the CRY/FIO1 and CRY/MTA complexes explain, at least partially, the writer-specific functions in plant photomorphogenesis.