Chromosome-level Genome of Putative Autohexaploid Actinidia deliciosa Provides Insights into Polyploidisation and Evolution
Published:11 Jan.2024    Source:The Plant Journal
Actinidia (Mihoutao in Chinese) includes species with complex ploidy, among which diploid Actinidia chinensis and hexaploid Actinidia deliciosa are economically and nutritionally important fruit crops. Actinidia deliciosa has been proposed to be an autohexaploid (2n =174) with diploid A. chinensis (2n =58) as the putative parent.
A CCS-based assembly anchored to a high-resolution linkage map provided a chromosome-resolved genome for hexaploid A. deliciosa yielded a 3.91-Gb assembly of 174 pseudochromosomes comprising 29 homologous groups with 6 members each, which contain 39 854 genes with an average of 4.57 alleles per gene. Here we provide evidence that much of the hexaploid genome matches diploid A. chinensis; 95.5% of homologous gene pairs exhibited >90% similarity. However, intragenome and intergenome comparisons of synteny indicate chromosomal changes.
Our data, therefore, indicate that if A. deliciosa is an autoploid, chromosomal rearrangement occurred following autohexaploidy. A highly diversified pattern of gene expression and a history of rapid population expansion after polyploidisation likely facilitated the adaptation and niche differentiation of A. deliciosa in nature. The allele-defined hexaploid genome of A. deliciosa provides new genomic resources to accelerate crop improvement and to understand polyploid genome evolution.