Arabidopsis Protein S-acyl Transferases Positively Mediate BR Signaling Through S-acylation of BSK1
Published:21 Feb.2024    Source:PNAS
Protein S-acyl transferases (PATs) catalyze S-acylation, a reversible post-translational modification critical for membrane association, trafficking, and stability of substrate proteins. Many plant proteins are potentially S-acylated but few have corresponding PATs identified.
By using genomic editing, confocal imaging, pharmacological, genetic, and biochemical assays, we demonstrate that three Arabidopsis class C PATs positively regulate BR signaling through S-acylation of BRASSINOSTEROID-SIGNALING KINASE1 (BSK1). PAT19, PAT20, and PAT22 associate with the plasma membrane (PM) and the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE). Functional loss of all three genes results in a plethora of defects, indicative of reduced BR signaling and rescued by enhanced BR signaling. PAT19, PAT20, and PAT22 interact with BSK1 and are critical for the S-acylation of BSK1, and for BR signaling.
The PM abundance of BSK1 was reduced by functional loss of PAT19, PAT20, and PAT22 whereas abolished by its S-acylation-deficient point mutations, suggesting a key role of S-acylation in its PM targeting. Finally, an active BR analog induces vacuolar trafficking and degradation of PAT19, PAT20, or PAT22, suggesting that the S-acylation of BSK1 by the three PATs serves as a negative feedback module in BR signaling.