Adaptive Evolution of Chloroplast Division Mechanisms During Plant Terrestrialization
Published:21 Apr.2024    Source:Cell Reports
Despite extensive research, the origin and evolution of the chloroplast division machinery remain unclear. Here, we employ recently sequenced genomes and transcriptomes of Archaeplastida clades to identify the core components of chloroplast division and reconstruct their evolutionary histories, respectively. Our findings show that complete division ring structures emerged in Charophytes.
We find that Glaucophytes experienced strong selection pressure, generating diverse variants adapted to the changing terrestrial environments. By integrating the functions of chloroplast division genes (CDGs) annotated in a workflow developed using large-scale multi-omics data, we further show that dispersed duplications acquire more species-specific functions under stronger selection pressures.
Notably, PARC6, a dispersed duplicate CDG, regulates leaf color and plant growth in Solanum lycopersicum, demonstrating neofunctionalization. Our findings provide an integrated perspective on the functional evolution of chloroplast division machinery and highlight the potential of dispersed duplicate genes as the primary source of adaptive evolution of chloroplast division.