Graph-Based Pangenome of Actinidia chinensis Reveals Structural Variations Mediating Fruit Degreening
Published:06 Jun.2024    Source:Advanced Science
Fruit ripening is associated with the degreening process (loss of chlorophyll) that occurs in most fruit species. Kiwifruit is one of the special species whose fruits may maintain green flesh by accumulating a large amount of chlorophyll even after ripening. However, little is known about the genetic variations related to the fruit degreening process.
Here, a graph-based kiwifruit pangenome by analyzing 14 chromosome-scale haplotype-resolved genome assemblies from seven representative cultivars or lines in Actinidia chinensis is built. A total of 49 770 non-redundant gene families are identified, with core genes constituting 46.6%, and dispensable genes constituting 53.4%. A total of 84 591 non-redundant structural variations (SVs) are identified. The pangenome graph integrating both reference genome sequences and variant information facilitates the identification of SVs related to fruit color.
The SV in the promoter of the AcBCM gene determines its high expression in the late developmental stage of fruits, which causes chlorophyll accumulation in the green-flesh fruits by post-translationally regulating AcSGR2, a key enzyme of chlorophyll catabolism. Taken together, a high-quality pangenome is constructed, unraveled numerous genetic variations, and identified a novel SV mediating fruit coloration and fruit quality, providing valuable information for further investigating genome evolution and domestication, QTL genes function, and genomics-assisted breeding.